Reference Materials

Chlorine Dioxide–A Versatile, High-Value Sterilant for the Biopharmaceutical Industry



Historically, chlorine dioxide (CD) became important in sanitation because of municipal water treatment concerns about halomethanes and chloramines generated during industrial chlorine-based water treatment. The American Water Works Association (1, 2) details the chemical properties of CD, with gas generator designs and the history and applications of CD in water treatment. ERCO Worldwide ( provides extensive background material including recent literature, patents, and microbiology on a dedicated website: